Emissions produced through the downstream use of a product by consumers and upstream manufacture are categorised as "Scope 3" emissions. In the retail sector, over 90% of the emissions are produced within the supply chain. However, less than 25% of companies engage their suppliers to reduce these emissions.
Walmart created Project Gigaton with the aim to reduce or avoid one billion metric tons (a gigaton) of GHGs from their global value chain by 2030. Before its launch, Walmart partnered with Supply Pilot to benchmark their supply chain emissions and eliminate 20 million metric tons of GHG emissions from their global supply chain - the same as taking more than 3.8 million cars off the road for a year.
Walmart's Sustainability Team, led by Rob Kaplan, planned to achieve this by promoting smaller, incremental improvements across the entire supply chain. This approach went against the conventional wisdom of the day that focused on fewer, larger impact projects with a handful of strategic suppliers.